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Smaller extinction-events have occurred in the periods between these larger catastrophes, with some standing at the delineation points of the periods and epochs recognized by scientists in geologic time. The Holocene extinction event is currently under way. Factors in mass extinctions include continental drift , changes in atmospheric and marine chemistry , volcanism and other aspects of mountain formation , changes in glaciation , changes in sea level , and impact events.

In this timeline, Ma for megaannum means "million years ago," ka for kiloannum means "thousand years ago," and ya means "years ago. Bacteria develop primitive forms of photosynthesis which at first did not produce oxygen. Contains the Palaeoproterozoic , Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic eras. It is subdivided into three eras, the Paleozoic , Mesozoic and Cenozoic , which are divided by major mass extinctions. Four-limbed tetrapods gradually gain adaptations which will help them occupy a terrestrial life-habit.

From Major extinctions in terrestrial vertebrates and large amphibians. Earliest examples of armoured dinosaurs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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The current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life. Not to be confused with history of evolutionary thought. This article is about the evolution of all life on Earth. For more detailed and comprehensive coverage, see evolutionary history of life. Main article: Extinction event. See also: List of bilateral animal orders. Main article: Hadean. Main article: Archean. Main article: Proterozoic. Main article: Phanerozoic. Main article: Paleozoic.

Main article: Mesozoic. Main article: Cenozoic. Evolution of fungi Evolution of plants timeline Geologic time scale History of the Earth Natural history Sociocultural evolution Timeline of human evolution Timeline of natural history. Watching, from the Edge of Extinction. Yale University Press. Retrieved 30 May November 8, The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, PLOS Biology.

National Science Foundation. Retrieved 11 April Archived from the original on May 8, Bibcode : PNAS Planetary Science Institute. Tucson, AZ. Because the Moon helps stabilize the tilt of the Earth's rotation, it prevents the Earth from wobbling between climatic extremes.

Evolutionary history of life

Without the Moon, seasonal shifts would likely outpace even the most adaptable forms of life. Bibcode : Natur.


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Retrieved 2 March BBC News. Retrieved 1 March May 21, Associated Press. Mark; et al.

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November 24, Bibcode : PNAS.. Peter October 21, What do we know about how they evolved from earlier life-forms? Scientific American. Research in Microbiology.

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July Annual Review of Biochemistry. CBC News. January Nature Geoscience. Bibcode : NatGe Bibcode : AsBio.. Ford February Bibcode : SciAm. Archived from the original PDF on Biology Direct. Systematic and Applied Microbiology. May Photosynthesis Research. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Ecological Processes. Journal of Bacteriology. June 29, March 31, Paleontological Research. Retrieved 10 April October 7, Journal of Theoretical Biology. Summer August 28, Bibcode : Sci December Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

Bibcode : PPP Retrieved 7 April September 9, Kingston, Ontario, Canada: Queen's University. November 22, Rieboldt, Sarah; Smith, Dave eds. Tour of geologic time Online exhibit.

Land of Last Life

The Cambrian Explosion. Bristol, England: University of Bristol. University of California Museum of Paleontology.


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The oldest fossils of footprints ever found on land hint that animals may have beaten plants out of the primordial seas. Lobster-sized, centipede-like animals made the prints wading out of the ocean and scuttling over sand dunes about million years ago. Previous fossils indicated that animals didn't take this step until 40 million years later. September Evolution: Education and Outreach. Biology of Sharks and Rays. The ancestry of sharks dates back more than million years before the earliest known dinosaur.

April 7, Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Introduction of Molecular Virology Lecture. This means that viruses also probably emerged from the waters with their different hosts, during the successive waves of colonisation of the terrestrial environment. National Geographic News.